Thursday, August 27, 2020
The American individuals Essay The hostile had some underlying triumphs for the Vietnamese since American knowledge neglected to recognize the development of adversary troops. One of the most renowned occasions during this hostile was the invasion of the American government office in the South Vietnamese capital Saigon by a 15-man self destruction crew, every one of whom were effectively executed. A correspondent at the time in the international safe haven which was viewed as the most secure spot in Vietnam considered this to be it was going on and this emergency was seen by millions around the world. After sure forecasts of an unavoidable triumph numerous Americans were stunned to see film of Communist contenders in the grounds of the American government office which made a Ã¢â¬Ëcredibility gapÃ¢â¬â¢ between the official message and what was seen occurring on TV. Broadly Walter Cronkite, the most powerful US anchorman said Ã¢â¬Å"What the damnation is going on? I thought we were winning this warÃ¢â¬ . The presentation of draft of new officers additionally expanded resistance, and many consumed their draft cards. Dark and different minorities, who made up the biggest extent of the American armed force, would not like to battle Ã¢â¬Ëfor something that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have themselvesÃ¢â¬â¢, particularly since many white individuals escaped the draft by heading off to college. Broadly Muhammad Ali was indicted for declining to be drafted and stated, Ã¢â¬Å"No Vietcong ever called me niggerÃ¢â¬ . Likewise the shooting of Vietnam Veterans who were calmly fighting outside Kent state just caused more turmoil among the American individuals. Colossal walks were occurring against the war, with a million people going along with one in New York. Somewhere in the range of 1960 and 1973 more than 500,000 men abandoned from the military and in 1967 Ã¢â¬ËVietnam Veterans against the WarÃ¢â¬â¢ was shaped. Especially huge in subverting support for the war at home was the developing acknowledgment of the ruthlessness of the war. US troops were prepared to consider the to be as not human with the goal that they felt ready to slaughter them. The strategy of Ã¢â¬ËSearch and DestroyÃ¢â¬â¢ were expected to help discover Communist guerrillas covering up in towns, however frequently brought about blameless regular citizens being assaulted and having their homes and harvests demolished as blow-back. The utilization of compound defoliants was additionally extremely harming as they were seen later as cancer-causing and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s aimless shelling appeared to be just to distance the South Vietnamese instead of win other their Ã¢â¬ËHearts and MindsÃ¢â¬â¢. The most well known barbarity of the war was the slaughter in the town of My Lai on March 1968. The organization was informed that a Vietcong force was covering up in the town and that any locals discovered were unquestionably socialist supporters. In spite of finding no adversary warriors they demolished the town and executed many its occupants. From the outset this slaughter was left well enough alone and just on November twelfth 1969 did the story show up in the American press after a columnist discussed the story to an official being investigated for this slaughter. The reports of the slaughter enormously reinforced the counter war development in America. This shook numerous Americans perspective on themselves as the Ã¢â¬Ëgood guysÃ¢â¬â¢ and made them question whether America was battling for an admirable motivation. Also the $66 million daily spent by 1968 implied that President JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s spending on another Ã¢â¬ËGreat SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢ was radically cut, and personal expense rose. $900 million worth of American gear had been obliterated anyway they had just done $300 million worth of harm toward the North Vietnamese economy. Additionally the expense of the soldiers in Vietnam added up to about $20 to $30 billion per year. In 1967 Ã¢â¬ËLife MagazineÃ¢â¬â¢ determined it cost $400,000 for each Vietcong guerrilla murdered. The media was the most impressive explanation behind America losing the war and the way that it was uncensored implied that horrifying pictures were accounted for back in America which caused un-repairable harm to the war exertion. This war indicated absolutely that if the individuals at home are unsettled to battle, a nation will always lose. The force and peril of the media was appeared with the ongoing Wikileaks outrage, demonstrating that there is a need not to have everything out in the general population. Show see just The above see is unformatted text This understudy composed bit of work is one of numerous that can be found in our GCSE Vietnam 1954-1975 area.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Question: How does improving your abilities with an e-portfolio connect to the ideas of competency, self-evaluation and self-guideline? Answer: E-Portfolio of nursing proficient is an online portfolio, which contains reports identified with scholastics, testaments, aptitudes, created information, vocation chart, and their abilities. The e - portfolio incorporates introduction, distributed articles and humanitarian effort identified with the calling. Self-evaluation is a self-coordinated program, which help understudies in learning. This helps nursing experts in recognizing their subject matter, quality and adapting needs. Self-evaluation helps in creating learning objective, which you create nursing practice standard. When you choose and build up your aptitudes, you can connected by e-portfolio to go after positions. Self-appraisal is partitioned into two segments, one is a reflection which helps in finding the quality, aptitudes and adapting needs. This will help in building nursing capabilities (EDCAN, 2008). While reflecting, consider how changes in components have an effect in your nursing practice. The presentation of trend setting innovation or creative strategy, procedure or aptitude in nursing practice ought to be scholarly. Medical caretakers ought to adjust, to learn changes happen by and by condition, which require extra information and shrewdness in conveying protected and moral nursing care. The outcomes from training reflection ought to be used in creating objectives and learning plan (Green, J., et al. 2013). The subsequent part is creating and keeping up learning plan, to make progress in a nursing profession. Practice reflection frames the underlying base of learning plans. Learning plan has recorded errand which a medical caretaker do to look after his/her abilities (Green, J., et al. 2013). Capabilities for medical caretakers is characterized as information, ability, demeanor, sound knowledge and judgment required for protected and moral nursing practice. Enrolled attendant ought to have these center abilities like to portray the activity and duty regarding own choice, satisfying the job of the enlisted nurture as an individual from nursing and medicinal services group, proficient responsibility and obligation to give moral act of nursing and give standard and moral administrations to open to pick up their trust. These skills must be referenced in the connected e - portfolio, which function as an impression of medical caretaker in accomplishing objectives (Competencies for section level Registered Nurse practice, 2014). Self-guideline discovers people among nursing proficient, who are fit for deciding and norms of nursing training and practice. Self-guideline includes nursing administrative body which keeps up standard in nursing rehearses for the trust of general society. These nursing administrative bodies give most ideal condition where medical attendants can satisfy their guidelines and moral commitment. Attendants are complying with norms of training and moral estimations of the nursing calling. At the point when medical caretakers stand upstanding and hold esteems for norms, at that point they increase open intrigue and regard (Nursing now, 2007). Self-guideline is a benefit conceded by government and effortlessly removed by them. To keep up this benefit, a nursing calling is responsible and answerable for government and open. One approach to keep up this benefit by nursing experts is to include the general population in a conversation sorted out by the human services group and nursing administrative body or to choose open agent among nursing social orders or medicinal services society. Self-guideline, self-evaluation and competency are connected to e-portfolio in improving attendants' abilities. As portfolio comprises of record identified with these three ideas, which help in building an expert picture among employing advisory groups, nursing administrative body and open since this portfolio is obvious on the web. References 1. School of Nurses of Ontario, 2012, Davenport, Toronto. 2. Skills for section level Registered Nurse practice, 2014, Davenpoet, Torrento. 3. EDCAN, 2008, Competency Assessment in Nursing: a Summary of the Literature. 4. Green, J., et al. 2013, Electronic portfolios in nursing training: A survey of the writing, Nurse Education in Practice. 5. Nursing now, 2007, Canadian medical caretakers affiliation, Ottawa.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Academic Essay SamplesAcademic essays are a fundamental part of most college admissions requirements. Without proper education and experience, the college may not be possible. The reason why a good academic writing ability is necessary for the admissions process is because most colleges and universities require students to write essays.It's no surprise that when it comes to essays, writing requires patience, creativity, and the ability to take notes. Therefore, writing a quality academic essay requires a certain level of reading, writing, and careful reading.Because people who are taking courses in a particular subject typically have better comprehension than others, there is a need for them to clearly and effectively express their thoughts in written form. Without the proper words, there is no way to properly explain an idea to a reader. This is why getting an academic writing sample is so important.When it comes to the writing process, an informal college essay could be confusing t o someone who has never taken this kind of course before. It is common for a student to think that taking notes during lectures or having conversations with their professor is enough to get the information across to their reader. However, these methods can sometimes work well, but the information would not be fully expressed. This is why making sure to get an academic writing sample is so important.Many students love taking academic essay samples and turning them into quality writing. This is one of the main reasons why most college admissions committees hire writers who have college degrees in this area. What is often missing from the samples offered are key terms that a student might not understand. This is why it is so important to keep your writing samples short and simple.The great chance for a student to express their thoughts in a short paragraph makes it easy for them to add helpful terms and key information that they could not get through in a paragraph. In addition, keepin g the work simple to read is important. To make sure you do not miss any key information, it's important to carefully read over your writing samples before submitting them.Essays are generally written on a topic that pertains to the type of class the student has taken. While it is possible to write essays about a subject in a more general sense, a student must have an idea about the topic they are addressing. This is the only way to determine how they can best relay the information to the reader. A student who knows what they want to write about will be more likely to write it.Finding academic essay samples is easy these days. There are many websites that offer sample essays. As long as you are careful in choosing your samples, you should be able to have a finished product by the time your college application is ready for review.
Monday, May 25, 2020
RMIT Course Guide System - HE Part B: Course Detail Page 1 of 5 Accounting for Management Decisions Part B: Course Detail Status: Published Version 1 Teaching Period RMIT Course Code RMIT Course Title School Career Campus Learning Mode Primary Learning Mode Sem 2 2013 ACCT2127 Accounting for Management Decisions 615H Accounting Postgraduate City Campus Face-to-Face Primary learning mode is face-to face class seminars Credit Points Teacher Guided Hours Learner Directed Hours Course Coordinator Course Coordinator Phone Course Coordinator Email Offering Coordinator 12 36 per semester 72 per semester Arabella Volkov 9925 5731 email@example.com Arabella Volkov Offering Coordinator Phone +61 3 99255731 OfferingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦19/07/2013 RMIT Course Guide System - HE Part B: Course Detail Page 3 of 5 7 COST
Friday, May 15, 2020
nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Born in Westmoreland County, Va., on Feb. 22, 1732. George Washington of six children of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington. At the age of 16, he lived there and at other plantations along the Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers, including the river later to be known as Mount Vernon. His education was simple, as surveying, mathematics, and quot;rules of civility.quot; After he lost his father in 1743 at the age of eleven. He was soon sent to live with his half brother Lawrence, who had served in the Royal Navy. Who soon became something as a substitute father for George. Since Lawrence had married into the Fairfax family, influential and well-known Virginians who helped launchÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Surrounded by enemy troops, exhausted, ammunition useless and food supply low. Washington surrendered. Under the terms of the surrender signed that day, he was allowed to march his troops back to Williamsburg, in embarrassment. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Depressed by his defeat and angered by discrimination between British and colonial officers in pay and rank. Washington resigned his commission at the end of 1754. The next year, he volunteered to join British general Edward Braddocks expedition against the French. When Braddock was ambushed by the Indians and French on the Monongahela River, Washington, though ill, tried to gather the Virginia troops. Washingtons own military reputation was enhanced, and in 1755, at the age of 23, Washington was promoted to colonel and appointed commander in chief of the Virginia militia, with responsibility for defending the frontier. Assured that the Virginia frontier was safe from French attack, Washington left the army in 1758. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Washington entered politics, serving (1759-74) in Virginias House of Burgesses. In January 1759 he married Martha Dandridge Custis, a wealthy and attractive young widow with two small children. After 1769, Washington became a leader in Virginias resistance to Great Britains colonial policies. At first he hoped for reconciliation with Britain, although some British policies had touched him personally.Show MoreRelatedGeorge Washington891 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessurrender to Great Britain. However, George Washington was not settling with anything less than trying their best. He kept that little flicker of hope that was still left, alive. The Continental Congress did not see much hope in the war either and turned the responsibility of the war to General George Washington. Washington received a message from Congress saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Full power to direct all things relativeÃ¢â¬ ¦ to the operations of war.Ã¢â¬ (Dupuy 63-64). Although Washington did not see this as much of an honorRead MoreGeorge Washington765 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Founder of a New Nation There are few figures as large in American history as George Washington. His powerful leadership, determination, and endless patriotism was essential for winning the Revolutionary War, the creation of the United States Constitution, and the establishment of a new government. There are three defining events that happened to George during his life in colonial America. His proper childhood upbringing, his military leadership in the revolutionary war, and his electionRead MoreGeorge Washington2434 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Discipline is the soul of an army. It makes small numbers formidable; procures success to the weak, and esteem to allÃ¢â¬ George Washington. This quote was said by one of the most intelligent, ambitious military genius; George Washington. Washington used his mind in fighting war instead of just brute force. He turned the battlefield and the art of war into a chess match. WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts in the Revolutionary War were very significant I that they ultimately help lead to the American victory in theRead More George Washington Essays897 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGeorge Washington - The Father of Our Country Why has George Washington earned the title Father of our Country? He was a great military leader and served as a general in the Revolutionary War. Washington was very involved in setting up the government of the United States and served as the first President. He is the most honored of any President and there are many things that help us remember him often. With all he has contributed to the success of our country, he certainly deserves this titleRead MoreGeorge Washington Paper1005 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFast Facts on George Washington * Born: February 22, 1732 PopeÃ¢â¬â¢s Creek, Virginia * Children: no natural children (Adopted the children of Martha Custis) *Grandfather by marriage of Confederate General Robert E. Lee * Military Service: Commander General, Revolutionary War * Profession: Surveyor/Planter * Political Party: Federalist * Home State: Virginia * Political Offices: Chairman of Constitutional Convention * Died: December 14, 1799 (Age- 670 Last Words:Read More George Washington Essay1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages George Washington George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He attended school for approximately eight years. Washington lived with his mother until the age of 16. At the age of 15, Washington took a job as an assistant land surveyor. In 1748, he began working in the Shanandoah Valley to help survey the land holdings of Lord Fairfax. By 1749, he established a good reputation as a land surveyor and was appointed Culpeper counties official land surveyor. WashingtonRead MoreEssay on George Washington628 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesGeorge Washington George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 on Popes Creek Farm in Westmoreland County, Virginia. The family George was born into consisted of his father, Augustine Washington, his mother, Mary Washington, and five brothers and sisters: Betty, Samuel, John Augustine, Charles and Mildred. There were also three other older children from his fathers first marriage to Jane Butler, who died in 1729: thirteen year-old Lawrence, twelve year-old Augustine and nine year-oldRead More George Washington Essay691 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He was the eldest of six children by Augustine Washington and his second wife Mary Ball. The majority of WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s education came from his father and after his death when George was 11 years of age in 1743, his elder half-brother Lawrence. Young George quickly learned the trade of surveying and at the age of 16 in 1748 he joined a surveying party sent out to the Shenandoah Valley by Lord Fairfax, a land baron. ForRead MoreEssay on George Washington1186 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGeorge Washington and the Revolution George Washington was a part of Gods plan for a new country. What he did influenced what America has become. He laid the foundation for presidents to come, and built this country on solid Christian principles. George Washington was born February 22, 1732. His family lived on a few farms on the Potomac River. George was a strong boy. He could ride a horse and shoot a gun by age 10. When George was ten his older brother Lawrence came homeRead MoreThe Legacy Of George Washington Essay1885 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe revered and respected first president, George Washington, gave the US hope during one of its most difficult times. Using the events and circumstances of his life to learn and advance his position, he grew from humble beginnings into a legend. George Washington had a valuable, well-rounded education from ages seven to fifteen, studying all the subjects (Nevins and Graff). Due to his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, George grew up under the supervision of his half-brother Lawrence at Mount Vernon, learning many
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
ARTICLE REVIEW: Closing the Cyber Gap: Integrating cross-government cyber capabilities to support the DHS cyber security mission, written by Edward W. Lowery. Introduction: The author of this article is Edward W. Lowery, who is apart of the U.S Secret Service. His job title is Ã¢â¬Å"Assistant Director of the Office of TrainingÃ¢â¬ as of February 2015. Mr. Lowery was appointed Special Agent in charge of the Secret ServiceÃ¢â¬â¢s Criminal Investigative Division (CID). Before taking this position, Edward Lowery served as the Deputy Assistant Director in the Office of Protective Operations. Edward is responsible for directing, as well as coordinating all cyber and financial crime investigative activities for the CID. He is also responsible for the dailyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Department of Homeland Security was created to make increased security and operational efficacy easier. The U.S Secret Service (USSS) and the U.S. Treasury Department were operationally aligned on September 11th, 2001. This was done to suppress the counterfeiting of United States currency. On October 26th, 2001 the USA Patriot Act passed. The USA Patriot Act called for the expansion of the USSS Electronic Crime Task Force (ECTF) model. This had been proven to be a successful method of tracking the terrorist use of cyber technologies and preventing attacks against the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s financial infrastructure. The article states that through a review of the Department of Homeland Security s documents on budgeting, the government is having trouble with budgeting their money and should invest more into cyber security. Steven Tomisek stated in his article Homeland Security: The New Role for Defense, that since the 9/11 terrorist attack, government agencies, and Department of Defense (DOD), have argued that any cyber threat targeting the United States critical infrastructure, which also includes the financial infrastructure, should be seen as a Ã¢â¬Å"national securityÃ¢â¬ threat, no matter what the motivations or identity of the attacker are. The NSA and DOD have argued that just them alone have the power to counter this critical threat t o our national security through domestic as well as international cyber operations. However,Show MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Technology On The Banking Industry1801 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesin the anytime, anywhere banking scenario. BBA (2014b) in their article,Ã¢â¬Ë The Cyber threat to BankingÃ¢â¬â¢, issues a warning that this digital dependency could have material impacts for individual banks and even develop into systemic concerns. There is many a weak link in the digital payment path starting with the customer, through to the bank which actions the payment instruction. The Literature Review covers in detail how rings of cyber criminals are able to master their own fraud technologies likeRead MoreCyber Crime8138 Words Ã |Ã 33 PagesThe Lack of Attention in the Prevention of Cyber crime and How to Improve it 1 PREVENTING CYBER CRIME Keywords: Cyber crime, Cyber security The Lack of Attention in the Prevention of Cyber Crime and How to improve it Brett Pladna ICTN6883 East Carolina University The Lack of Attention in the Prevention of Cyber crime and How to Improve it 2 Abstract This paper discusses the issues of cyber crime and what is being done to prevent it. Cyber criminals take advantages of vulnerabilities byRead MorePolicy Profile On Ciso Information Security3072 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagescloud storage then it will be a problem because they may not access their important data. Security Patches:-It s a heartbreaking reality. Sellers aren t generally snappy to create the fundamental assurance even with a recently discovered security gap. Truth be told, Symantec reports that in the second a large portion of 2006, all the working framework merchants that were examined had longer normal patch advancement times than in the first 50% of the year. Further confounding matters, in any caseRead MoreThe Iranian Nuclear Threat : A Realistic Assessment2832 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesin exchange for billions of dollars in sanctions relief. If successful, the negotiations will push back IranÃ¢â¬â¢s breakout time to at least one year. Prior to the P5+1 talks, the Obama administration admitted to targeting IranÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear program with cyber attacks. It is widely believed that the United States and Israel were behind the advanced Stuxnet virus, which devastated one-fifth of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s centrifuges and likely delayed its breakout capacity by several years. Furthermor e, Israel is suspectedRead MoreDfsdf6862 Words Ã |Ã 28 Pagesmake a significant increase in sales and marketing efforts. Finally, in bridge financing, venture capitalists will provide capital to a company which expects to go public within the next 12 months, but requires additional working capital to bridge the gap, but this type of financing will be very rare as the number of initial public offerings have grounded to a virtual halt. Firms will also consider providing capital to finance mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, leveraged management, buy-outs orRead MoreResearch Awareness Essay examples5838 Words Ã |Ã 24 Pagesfacility, then entered the search term of Ã¢â¬Ëadolescent communicationÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã This initial search produced 101,168 results.Ã I then proceeded to refine this search by doing the following: I limited the media to be only articles from scholarly publications and refined by content type to Ã¢â¬Ëjournal articleÃ¢â¬â¢ in order to obtain results from credible sources.Ã I refined the search by publication date of 2008 to present to ensure the literature was up-to-date.Ã I refined by language to only English.Ã Then refined byRead MoreAbstract: Strategic Contingency Planning23625 Words Ã |Ã 95 PagesLimitations 4 Definitions of Key Terms 5 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 10 Emergency Management 12 Business Continuity Planning 21 Strategic Planning 31 Scenario Futuring 34 Summary 39 3. PLANNING METHODOLOGIES 41 Emergency Management 41 Business Continuity 47 Strategic Planning 51 Scenario Futuring 55 Summary 63 4. NEW MODEL 65 The Strategic Contingency Plan 65 Finding the Gaps 67 The Wider View 69 The Business Case 70 Read MoreSummer Olymoics23416 Words Ã |Ã 94 PagesFor more details, see section Logo below. | Host city | London, United Kingdom | Motto | Inspire a Generation | Nations participating | 204 | Athletes participating | 10,820 | Events | 302 in 26 sports | Opening ceremony | 27 July | Closing ceremony | 12 August | Officially opened by | Queen Elizabeth II | Athlete s Oath | Sarah Stevenson | Judge s Oath | Mik Basi | Coach s Oath | Eric Farrell | Olympic Torch | * Callum Airlie * Jordan Duckitt * Desiree Henry *Read MoreServices Operations Management8601 Words Ã |Ã 35 Pagesinfrastructure, they on their way to setting themselves apart from the competition. Step 1: Identification of key programs, products, and services. This isnt about getting out a company brochure and saying this is what we do. It is far more in-depth: Review the output of your work and who receives, uses or benefits from it. What youll start to build is your value proposition. Anyone can sell hardware but selling the benefits of having that toolbox right there when you need it is a different conceptRead MoreServices Operations Management8615 Words Ã |Ã 35 Pagesinfrastructure, they on their way to setting themselves apart from the competition. Step 1: Identification of key programs, products, and services. This isnt about getting out a company brochure and saying this is what we do. It is far more in-depth: Review the output of your work and who receives, uses or benefits from it. What youll start to build is your value proposition. Anyone can sell hardware but selling the benefits of having that toolbox right there when you need it is a different concept
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Introduction The fast-food industry has been developing rapidly and has successfully penetrated majority of the markets globally, at the same time bringing about several significant changes in practices, work and employment relations. Fast-food restaurants are distinguished and characterized by their inexpensive food products prepared in a standardized method that is dispensed to their customers quickly and efficiently for takeaway or dine-in and are usually packaged without the provision of utensils. However, the rapid expansion and proliferation of the industry was not a smooth ransition, instead, it has brought about several controversies and criticisms. Such growth and success has brought disadvantages to workers rights, wages and the conditions of work (Royle Towers, 2002) as well as providing a greater insight on how work and employment relations should be better managed. In addition, it also brought to light that not all protocols, standards and practices of the fast-food company fits the different markets globally perfectly, due to the different cultures, mindsets and preferences, which we will be exploring in depth in this essay in particular, the fast-food industry in Singapore, Germany and United States. Even though major corporations were to set up fast-food restaurants in the listed countries, similarities and differences will arise and we will discuss this in the essay. The Fast-Food Labour force The fast-food industry has showed several trends in their employment practices in different countries with each workforce showing distinct characteristics. This is because the fast-food companies generally tend to aim the flawed and insignificant group of the labour market, with majority of the employees being inexperience, low- skilled, young and easily replaceable labour. In addition, due to the nature of this industry, the Job scope is highly standardized and repetitive, thus it is seen to be a job that has low and unpromising future prospects. It has also played a big role in causing the proliferation of insecure, unstable, part-time and low wage employment. We will now look into the similarities and differences between Singapore and the 2 other countries fast food industry, using a good example by McDonalds. First of all, Singapore and United States labour force shows parallels in the type, nature and mindsets and displayed high labour turnover rates. The Singapore fast- food industry labour force is generally made up of a range of different age groups with differing qualifications. For instance in restaurant outlets, restaurant managers are usually secondary school leavers and the crew members usually hold low education qualifications. However employees working in the headquarters are experienced, skillful and highly qualified often graduates or those who had previous employment benefits and prospects as findings showed that each executive has an individually negotiated employment contract (Pereira, 2002), and they tend to deal ith more challenging and more enriching Jobs. However, employees in the outlets see their Job in McDonalds as a short-term temporary Job with no promising future prospects and as large percentage of the part-time crew consists of students, they will leave the Job upon graduation or if they found a better Job with better prospects, permanent and with better benefits rather than continue working with McDonalds. Even so, McDonalds attempted to retain their youth employees restaurant managers especially, by treating them like professionals, having more professional eminars but they eventually did not stay long. Due to Singapores changing demographics, low birth rates and the fact that more individuals are graduating higher educational qualifications- a degree, the labour pool that McDonalds can tap into has become relatively much smaller thus they have turned to employing the elders whom to, are pleased and have accepted the low wages and lesser employment benefits for the convenience of work location, less commitment and the simplicity of the Jobs. This is when the pattern of the labour shift to the elderly, as by ate 1990s, 40 per cent of all employees in McDonalds are elders consisting of housewives or retirees (Royle Towers, 2002) and partly because it was illegal for foreign workers to work in fast-food industry. True enough, for the case of United States, their labour workforce is made up of youth too, as shown in a 1994 study that almost 70 percent of fast-food workers were 20 years old or younger (Van Giezen, 1) and most of them have low expectations on their salary, employment benefit and sees their Job as temporary (Leidner, 2002). Similar to Singapore, their labour orkforce also consist of elderly as well as women with children employees that shares the same expectations as that of the youth employees. This is usually due to their preference for part-time Job. Majority also proceed on to other better Jobs as they perceive it to be a temporary one. Thus, we can see that United States have generally a younger labour force, due to the societys general mindset that a fast-food job is a appropriate first Job experience and the fact that theres no requirement for skilled experienced employees, thus, displaying the similar traits in the age and type f labour force of the fast-food industry for both Singapore and United States. On the contrary, the labour workforce differs greatly between Singapore and Germany. As discussed in the above part, we distinguished that Singapore has a more elderly workforce with lesser youth employees and no foreign workers employed. In addition, the labour turnover as compared to Singapore, is not high. This is because a large percentage of the labour in Germany is made up of ethnic minorities foreign workers, economic migrants from the old Eastern Bloc and guest workers mostly from Turkey and Greece (Royle, 2002). The economic migrants and guest workers took up a large percentage 50 percent to 90 percent of the workforce, unlike that of Singapores- where foreign workers are not allowed to work in the fast- food industry. Employee representation in the fast-food industry regulations may be more pro-employees or pro-employers, which will be explored in paragraphs below. Employee representation comes in the form of trade unions, work councils, co-determination and collective bargaining. Trade/Work unions are As the industry expands rapidly, it gives rise to an unhealthy employment nvironment where theres no prospects for future growth or promotion in their career, poor wages and benefits, stressful environment and these usually takes place in a union-free environment (Royle Towers, 2002). Companies are increasingly denying employees their rights and benefits and the situation is aggravated without the presence of trade unions or favorable employees regulations, as employees might be unable to voice out their concerns or request for their employment rights. In this case, Singapore and United States are similar as both nations have the least egulated systems (Royle Towers, 2002) and their laws and regulations are seemingly to be pro-employers. In Singapore, since its independence day industrial peace is the main objective from the creation of the legal framework and unions can only be formed under conditional rules and under the Judgment of the Labour Minister (Deyo, cited in Pereira, 2002). In addition, Singapore is described having a authoritarian corporatist model where they view politicized trade unions as a threat that will unstable the political system as well as a group that might collude to request or outrageous demands. As labour is a precious and essential resource of Singapore, they learnt from the problems before 1995 that strikes, interunion disharmonious relations and political interference has contributed a lot to the decline of the economy. Thus, the government has decided to reinforce labour laws and regulations to ensure industrial peace (Tan, cited in Pereira, 2002). However, the Industrial Relations Act did not include issues such as retrenchment, promotion, dismissal, work assignments and such terms are to be negotiated between the employers and he employees (Pereira, 2002). This showed that the laws in Singapore gave power to the employers. However, there are still some areas that the government has set aside to protect the basic rights of the employees such as stating down their work hours, number of paid annual and sick leave, and overtime rate. The government has also made the National Trade Union Congress (NTUC) the only national union body of Singapore and all unions had to be affiliated with them (Leggett, cited in Pereira, 2002). NTUC also worked with the National Wage Council were they discuss with the overnment, employers and employees to assess the wages annually and revisions of wages and guidelines will be generally be adopted by large multinational and local corporations. For the employees, they have an option to Join a union (Tan, cited in Pereira, 2002). An excellent example would be the employees in McDonalds. They believe that unions are not required, as they have their own Human Resource Management Programme that helps keep their workers appeased and promote loyalty within them to the company. However, the workers have never considered a ollective representation as firstly, it is not necessary for them to Join a union, next is because they are pleased with whatever has already been offered to them in terms of industry have the upper hand in determining the conditions of employment as there is very little presence of trade unions and strict regulations, thus allowing them more freedom to implement their own rules. Technically, the workers have no or little rights to their employment and the employers have no legal obligation of fairness (Leidner, 2002), thus showing similar pro-employer labour regulations traits s Singapore. However, one distinct difference is that workers in America are not protected with basic rights, unlike Singapore workers, as paid vacations and paid holidays are provided at the discretion of the employers and not legally mandated (Rasnic, cited in Leidner, 2002). The stressful and competitive environment of the fast-food industry in United States, bundled with the employer-bias regulations has disadvantaged the employees greatly. Even though the workers are unhappy and discontent with their Job, it has not led to result in unionization. This is due to the oung and inexperienced work not educated about unions, has came to terms with their wages and benefits as they have low expectations, sees the Job only temporary, and are unsupportive of labour laws (Leidner, 2002). One other reason for the lack of unionization is because of the resistance by the fast-food corporations, who openly declared that they are anti-unions. In conclusion, even though Singapore and United States showed slight differences, it generally showed a greater similarities in terms of how the regulations are pro-employers, the reason of the lack of unionization and ow fast-food corporations are technically undaunted by unions, or the lack of it, and are able to actively promote their own set of corporate regulations for work and employment relations. As compared to Singapore, the German system can be seen as being the opposite end of the spectrum as far as workers rights are concerned. Germany has a highly juridified industrial relation system complete with formal legalization of trade unions and a comprehensive system of work councils suggests that it might be one of the better development of employee representation (Royle Towers, 2002). Basically, mployees in Germany are supported by the work unions, unlike that of Singapore where most regulations are employer-bias, and union participation in optional. However, even with such systems implemented in Germany, the unions encountered barriers to increase workers benefits, wage levels, forming union supported work councils and ensure that the companies comply to the collective agreements. For instance, McDonalds has effectively managed to evade collective agreements and defy work councils for 18 years and counting, showing the difficulty of work force to have a say even with the presence of work unions. Another difference between Singapore and Germany is also how the fast-food corporations work with the unions. In Singapore, the laws are favourable for them as it employer-bias thus they are able to instill their own practices and methods for employee and work relations. On the other hand, German national fast-food companies usually adopt co-operative methods and relations to deal with the unions even though some still take an anti- union position (Royle Towers, 2002). Eventually, they are still able to turn the tables around, evading strict rules and able to set their own systems and practices.